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The boy has alopecia when you have hair loss. We speak of alopecic plaque when it is only a very specific region of the hair that lacks hair.
The term alopecia defines the decrease or loss of hair, localized or generalized, temporary or definitive of any type or origin.
For a proper understanding of alopecia it is necessary to know that hair growth is cyclical, going through 3 stages: 1st growth stage (anagen) that lasts from 2 to 6 years, in which the hair grows 1 cm. each month.
Then comes a period of rest or catagen that lasts about 3 weeks; and finally the fall or telogen phase is reached (imperceptibly falling between 80-100 hairs / day.) that lasts from 3 to 4 months.
Alopecia represents between 3% and 8% of the first consultations in Dermatology. In Primary Care, the most common patient is a young man who consults for androgenetic alopecia (common baldness).
In children it has many origins: psychic, maniac (hair is pulled), fungus (ringworm), scar in the hair area, etc.
There are various classifications of alopecia, but from a prognostic point of view we are going to distinguish two basic types: scarring (therefore irreversible) and non-scarring (potentially reversible).
In both there is a detachment of the hair at the level of the follicle, but in the first case there is a destruction of it that makes it irrecoverable and in the case of non-scarring the follicle is not destroyed, it undergoes functional changes that could be recoverable.
The only exception is the androgenetic alopecia that, although it is not scar it is slowly progressive and unrecoverable. In scarring alopecia, it is possible to pinch the scalp at the level of the alopecia plaque (due to follicular atrophy), however in non-scarring alopecia it is difficult to pinch the scalp as the follicles persist.
The treatment of non-scarring alopecia must be carried out by a specialized dermatologist. But for scarring alopecia there is no effective solution since there are no roots that can be stimulated.
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